The Surrealist

Franchesco Casadidio

The Surrealist

Meshes of the afternoon, is a short experimental film that follows surrealist ideals. In film, the audience cannot connect the scenes in a causal matter. The film distorts the common thought process any audience would have if it were looking at it in a rational manner. Even though the film might not have a consistent structure the film makes the argument that a knife is like a key, a tool that is used to escape. The way in which the directors have edited the film to use graphic matching to compare the knife and key supports the idea that both items are interchangeable. The woman in the film interacts with the key from the beginning of the film which makes it a point of focus. As the film progresses she is once again captured interacting with the key on the table in which it switches cuts from key to knife and again to key.

Throughout Meshes of the afternoon, a feeling of suicide is built throughout the film because of the way the woman interacts with her environment. She seems a bit lost in the house and the constant angel shifts of the camera gives the impression that the woman is lost. From the beginning of the film the woman is seen with a key and then drops the key and chases after it. The key is important to her because it lets her open the door of the house that she is trying to get into. The woman is capable of moving from the outdoors to the inside only through the use of the key. The graphic matching in the film with the knife and key suggests that the woman wants to commit suicide. The knife has now become the tool that she will use to escape her own life.

Towards the end of the film, the woman seems to be uncomfortable when she is awoken by the knife which is then cross switched to be a man waking her up. The man puts the phone and her back in order but quickly out stays his welcome when he starts to touch the woman. The flower that she has next to her transforms into a knife which she uses to get rid of the man. She throws the knife at him and he breaks as if he was a mirror. The way in which she is able to escape that moment is through the knife a tool that is compared to a method of escape in my analysis.

As the film approaches to an end the audience sees the woman dead on a chair. It seems as if she has finally taken her own life with the knife. The way in which the film uses the knife interchangeably with a key makes the argument that a knife is a tool that one can use to escape. The woman first uses the knife to escape the sexual encounter she had with the man and then again to escape the world she is in by taking her own life.


The Music in Un Chien Andalou

The three short films that the class screened were experimental short films that were very interesting but also very confusing. Rather than containing a comprehensive plot and story line like traditional narrative films such as Mildred Pierce and Metropolis, these pieces use music and sound effects to portray emotions in the short film. Even though many musical pieces and different sound effects are used, particularly in Un Chien Andalou the story itself is still quite hard to follow.

The first short film and the one this blog post will be focusing on, Un Chien Andalou, was an intense film. It utilizes disturbing imagery paired with light non-diegetic and airy music throughout to convey a story that is unclear, or rather a plot and story that does not exist. Much of the imagery shown follows the theme of death, with images such as the dead donkeys on the piano and the supposed death of the woman who was hit by a car. Also, there are several images shown involving blood or tears in skin, such as the scene at the beginning with the woman’s eye being cut and the man’s hand later on with ants crawling out. Throughout the film items such as unusual articles of clothing and a striped box are repeatedly seen. The woman who appears to be the main character interacts with these items in almost every scene, although it is not certain of what they represent or even if they are somehow meant to mean anything at all. The lack of dialogue in this and the other two short films did add to the confusion when interpreting them, as most films have dialogue to help the audience determine what the story is focused on. Most silent films use music when there is no dialogue to portray emotions, although the emotions shown by the actors in this short film are quite different from what emotions are suggested by the music.

Throughout the film, musical compositions are played which reflect a very happy and light mood. However beneath these happy tones there are disturbing, violent and erratic images being presented to the audience. While the music played various actions were being carried out by the actors that are irregular to say the least. During the forced molestation of a woman for example, elegant music is played over the film, in contrast to normal silent films when much darker music would be played during a scene such as this. Despite the ominous tone of the scene, the lighter tone of the music impresses upon the audience an attitude of happiness. This defies every logic ever applied to the majority of silent films. The logic behind musical pieces used in silent films, or any film for that matter, was to use music that reflected the emotions that the director wanted to convey for any scene, and normally these emotions were backed up by the actors as well. In the case of Un Chien Andalou the emotions of the actors were very dark and threatening while the music was joyful. Another scene which reflects this unusual pairing of happy music with ominous scenes was that of the severed hand on the sidewalk and a curious crowd gathering around it. Under normal circumstances in a more traditional film this scene would be quite disturbing and supported by dark music reflecting the emotions of the film, while in this film only the actors’ portrayals of emotions are dark while the music is joyful and even playful as it would be in something such as a party scene.

Overall Un Chien Andalou is very confusing and shows an era of film making in which different devices and methods were used to experiment with the creation and portrayal of stories. Using light music at the same time as dark and strange imagery to convey a story, or lack thereof, to the audience in contrast to a traditional film’s consistent narrative and dialogue, this and the other experimental short films showed a way of making movies very different from most we have seen.

The Art of Discovering One’s Self

The experimental short film Meshes of the Afternoon explores the concept of a subconscious mind by unveiling one’s true self. Through the use of different techniques, such as multiple versions of the protagonist on screen, point-of-view shots, and symbolism of mirrors, the film is able to express how the unnamed protagonist sees herself, pulling her views from her subconscious mind into reality, resulting in her death.

Throughout the film, the same sequence of the woman chasing a hooded figure and entering a house is shown. The first time the woman wanders into the house, she falls asleep and begins to dream of watching herself re-entering the house, repeatedly. Yet, each time she goes into the house, something new happens and her duplicates begin to gather. By incorporating the many protagonists accumulating in the house, as the dream somewhat recycles itself, it shows the different sides of the woman. The women that came from the protagonist’s subconscious reveal various sides of her true personality, represented by the different experiences each of them have in the house. These “duplicates” are what make up her subconscious mind, and each time they enter the house, the dreaming woman realizes who she really is. After discovering her true nature, the protagonist is completely destroyed. This then causes her to not be able to live with who she really is, leading to her subconscious banding together to end her life.

As the protagonist enters the house, the audience begins watching through her perspective. By shooting the scene through the woman’s point of view, the viewers are able to experience what she sees while entering the house. Including the misplaced items, as well as grasping what the protagonist feels. This connects the audience and the protagonist, allowing them to develop the same reactions. By enabling the audience to see from her point of view, they are able to delve into her mind and begin to discover the protagonist’s true self with her, for the first time.

Mirrors repetitively appear throughout the film, symbolizing the woman’s reflection on herself. As the film progresses, the amount of mirrors increase to represent how her true nature is gradually coming about. For example, the woman sees the masked figure as someone who is dangerous and villainous. However, the whole time the figure had a mask made out of a mirror. While looking at its face, the woman would be able to see herself in the mirror, showing herself as monstrous. Even as the dream develops, it is shown that she is the masked figure. In this case the mirror is a symbol that what she is most afraid of is her true nature. Towards the end of the film, the symbolism of the mirror appears again when the woman tries to kill her husband, and all that is left are shattered pieces of mirror being washed up by the ocean. Right after, it is shown that the woman actually killed herself with those pieces from the mirror. Because the pieces were washed up on shore, it’s as if the way she sees herself as being washed away since she has ended her own life.

The film Meshes of the Afternoon uses visual artistic techniques to portray a film that has no real linear narrative structure, thus making it experimental. Through the use of these different methods, including the protagonist multiplied throughout her dream, various point-of-view shots, and mirrors as a symbol for reflecting on oneself, the film dives into the concept of a subconscious mind and the negative effects that can be implemented on one’s self.

The Inner Machinations of Man

Brandon Jones


EGN 2300

18 September 2013

The Inner Machinations of Man

The short film “Un Chien Andalou” was a short film directed by surrealist director Luis Bunuel and surrealist artist Salvador Dali. The film was shot as an experimental film with no intended plot, instead it is shot as a disorienting dream like narrative with no context of the actions taking place. The movie has many disturbing themes represented and instead of following dream like logic, it follows a more nightmare logic to advance the short film. There is no doubt that this film takes place in a nightmare because of the amount of unrealistic events that take place. For instance, when the woman steps out of her apartment and instead of being in the hallway of her building, she is on a rocky beach. Typically in dreams, people move from location to location without any travelling between destinations, thus establishing this film in a dream state. The nightmare logic of the film shows some of the worst subconscious tendencies of the human mind. One example of these tendencies would be the extended “rape” scene when the male character is chasing the female character around the apartment. It is a nightmarish scenario for both characters. For the woman, she’s being chased around what we can assume to be her apartment by a man who is trying to have his way with her. It shows how even in our dreams, our deepest fears can reach us and influence our thinking. Likewise for the man, he got teased by the woman initially but now he is failing to have his way. Not only is the dark side of that character coming out with his desire to rape this woman, but also his fear of failure is stopping him from getting what he wants. This is shown when he is struggling to reach the woman across the room by having the man attached to two men, and two pianos with two dead donkeys on top of the pianos. His fear was holding him back and weighing him down in the most outrageous fashion, as only one’s nightmare could. Furthermore, the dark side of one character is shown when he is being punished in the corner and he decides that he has had enough. The character turns around and suddenly the books he was holding morph into two pistols, further demonstrating the dream aspect of the film, and kills the man who was punishing him. The character’s desire to escape from his punishment brought out his inner evil, just like the other characters showed their dark sides and deep down fears. The actions of the characters in the dream mirrored surrealist ideals of violence and illogical depiction of events, representing the idealism of its directors. Dali and Bunuel showed how they believed people’s innermost subconscious would behave given the correct circumstances, and they did not depict it as a very moral or logical inner being.

Cinemtagography of Man with a Movie Camera


Giulianna Hsu



12 September 2013

Cinemtagography of Man with a Movie Camera

Dziga Vertov created Man with a Movie Camera using truly original cinematographic ideas to portray the lives of one city’s population. In the film, Vertov experimented with distance, speed, camera positions, special effects like superimposition, and multiple-frame imagery. In all, Vertov’s film lacked a basic narrative but showed the audience of 1929 what film could really do.

In Man with a Movie Camera, Vertov contrasted various scenes with differences in distance. Extreme long shots showed the city first empty, then filled with people, and finally emptying after the day came to a close. Vertov established each setting through first use of extreme long shots then cut to medium shots and even extreme close-ups as if to enter the world of this city. Vertov mostly famously centered in on the eye through the lens of the camera at one point while also shot scenes from a medium shot such as the birth of a child. Once closer to the subject being filmed, Vertov toggled with camera angles to add a sense of surrealism to the film. In contrast to film at the time, Vertov not only showed subjects straight on but also sideways, diagonally, from above, or below. These alternate views allow the audience to see the city and its life from a different perspective. For example, city landscape shot from the tops of buildings was not a shot directly down at the streets below but a diagonal shot encompassing the building itself.

Like Metropolis, Man with a Movie Camera exposed the audience to the wonders cameras could do at the time. Special effects like superimposition appear in both films. The most famous in Man with a Movie Camera showed the director of the film standing on top of the city while filming. He is almost the same size as buildings and appears to be watching over the city. Another showed a public building in two segments side by side and then turning the structure to make it appear as if it was crumbling into the streets. This style represented more multiple-frame imagery. Various scenes involving the citizens of this town are portrayed side-by-side using this technique. During these scenes actions are rushed and the city started to resemble a beehive with the amount of activity presented on screen at once.

The speed of Vertov’s filming changed throughout the film. He added moments of stills and adjusted the speed of the certain scenes to hasten them. When showing the life of the city Vertov pinpoints specific segments randomly to stop for a short amount of time. His adjustment of the speed of the film affected the perception by the audience of city life.

Man with a Movie Camera toggled multiple aspects of cinematography. Dziga Vertov’s film used various techniques to provide the audience with knowledge of the different things a camera show. Unlike film of the era, Vertov experimented in almost every shot with different angles, distance, and special effects.

A Touch of Spice Analysis

A Touch of Spice follows the life of Fanis lakovides. Through subjective flashbacks, the story unravels into a heartfelt first-person narration of the massive Greek deportation from Istanbul between 1955 and 1978 and its effects on the lives of those involved. At the start of the film Fanis is an aging astrophysics professor that has not seen his grandfather in decades. The reason for this is explained through flashbacks into Fanis’s childhood, starting in Turkey and moving passed the deportation into Athens.

Originally, Fanis is an active youth with a strong bond to his grandfather, who owns a spice shop in Constantinople. Through spices, his grandfather teaches Fanis about the stars and planets as well as life. Fanis also falls in love during this time with a young Turkish girl named Saime, who he teaches how to cook. In 1964 the family is forcibly exiled to Athens with only Fanis’s grandfather remaining in Constantinople because of his Turkish citizenship. While in Athens, Fanis tries desperately to cope with not only leaving his home but also his beloved grandfather and childhood sweetheart. After numerous failed attempts to see his grandfather Fanis finally forgets his culinary dreams and grows to become a highly revered astrophysicist. Finally, an aged Fanis travels to Istanbul to visit his grandfather only to find him dead. He rekindles his love with Saime, his childhood sweetheart, just in time for her to return to her incredibly Turkish militant husband. In all, Fanis grows to exemplify modern Greece as a man with strong affection and memories of Turkey (Saime) but that must cope with the reality of its disunion and conflict (exemplified by Saime’s husband).

A Touch of Spice, in essence, is a period piece that uses an immense amount of nondiegetic artistic additives to create its scenes. The first flashbacks of Constantinople are marked with soothing, cultural music to inspire a sense of emotion between the audience and the city. Much like the characters, the viewers are made to feel a sense of comfort or familiarity with Constantinople. In contrast, Fanis’s impression of Athens lacks the warmth of Constantinople. With the exception of scenes involving food, music does not exist in the Greek scenes.

The scenes between Fanis and his grandfather are comforting with warm lighting and the same soothing music. The lighting becomes clear, if not harsh upon Fanis’s arrival in Athens. The haze of childhood quite literally escapes the camera as the film moves into more modern times. The colors chosen for the Greek sets lack the homeliness of the spice shop in Constantinople. These color pallet differences are increased by the heavy increase of white light used on the Greek scenes versus Turkish ones.

The transition period in which Fanis discovers his family’s imminent deportation exhibits dark lighting and ominous music. The first hint of this is shown when a diplomat enters his grandfather’s store. Slow drumming couples the diplomat’s arrival as well as shadows and dark lighting. The Greek Orthodox Church his family then goes to is dark with shadows as ominous music plays over. The moment his father is told of his mandatory deportation the film literally stops. The camera cuts to a clock, blocking out the actors, the settings, and no music plays at this moment. The world has stopped in the eyes of Fanis.

Metropolis as a Hero’s Journey

Tyler Peters


Timothy Robinson

4 September 2013

Fritz Lang’s cinematic science-fiction epic, Metropolis (1927) presents a vivid hero’s journey resembling Joseph Campbell’s monomyth. Although details vary, Lang’s epic exhibits parallels to Campbell’s analysis as the protagonist navigates the narrative and encounters archetypal characters. The hero’s journey is a highly structured narrative pattern beginning with the hero’s departure and initiation.

The hero’s departure begins with the entrance of Freder Frederson, son of Joh, a ruthless city ruler. At first the hero is portrayed in the Eternal Gardens, his normal environment, playing amongst the sons and daughters of wealthy city dwellers. Maria enters amidst a group of worker children and delivers the first call to action that catalyzes Freder’s decision to explore the depths. As Joh’s heir, Freder confronts his destiny to become the city ruler while realizing he has very little knowledge of its dark secrets. This dissonance inspires full rebellion against Joh as he investigates the depths and crosses the threshold to explore the machines. Lang presents powerful visual and auditory contrasts between the city and workers of the depths to emphasize Freder’s leap into the unknown. The leap molds the viewer’s expectation of his impending character growth. In Metropolis, the hero experiences his call to action fairly quickly while most journeys involve a refusal of the call. In other words, he accepts fairly quickly that his life will change rapidly as he transitions from the luxurious lifestyle of the surface into the harsh conditions of the worker city.

The initiation involves significant hardships after which transform the hero and grant him a magical power or role. Witnessing the M-machine explosion and the appearance of Moloch mark Freder’s initiation. Subsequently, when Joh banishes Josaphat to the worker city, Freder confronts his father for the first time as a powerful obstacle rather than a provider. He does not agree with his father’s sentencing and is propelled further into his hero’s role. Freder meets Josaphat in the depths and they discuss his plan to assume a temporary worker disguise. Josaphat is the mentor archetype that imparts wisdom on the hero when beginning his harsh trials. During his first worker shift, Freder nearly passes out and confronts his father’s great power for the first time. He shouts in agony, “Father- Will this 10 hours never end!” The display represents Freder’s suffering for his fellow brothers. He emerges from the experience transformed and closer to his role as mediator. This long sequence of trials leads up to first contact with Maria, who fits the goddess archetype. Having traversed the world of the workers, he has achieved a magical power, love and empathy for Maria and the workers. She also grants him the power of a mediator that he accepts willingly. This role allows him to confront his father at the end of the narrative and restore peace between Joh and the Foreman.

Lang’s epic parallels an age-old narrative structure that relies heavily on protagonist growth. The prelude and intermezzo transport Freder from his extravagant lifestyle as a cultural elite, deep into emotional and physical conflict. Conflict forces him to confront his father’s wrath and ultimately achieve new found strength born from his love for Maria and his empathy for worker suffering. The hero emerges as the mediator in his new powerful role, a hallmark character of Campbell’s monomyth.

Metropolis Costume

Costumes make a character. Actually, all aspects of the mise en scenè make a character, but the costume adds just the right amount of character into a film. Many people watching the film Metropolis, may not notice the simple costume changes, or costumes on a certain character because the film is in black in white. However, when watching the film it is very noticeable that the workers down below the earth of Metropolis were filmed wearing dark, dirty, and unkept clothing. While the people above ground, living in the actual city of Metropolis are see wearing white, proper or classy entire. The use of the costumes also describes the separate class levels, which will be discussed below.

The opening scene of Metropolis shows a shift change for the workers. It is in this scene that the viewer is able to see the first costumes of the film. The workers are shown with their heads down, slowing walking in multiple lines to the depths of Metropolis to begin work. Their work attire is similar to a modern day prison outfit; a full workers suit, dark seen material, with a hat, and heavy work boots. Upon a closer look, when Feder, the main character of the film, goes down below to replace lives with a worker more detail in their costume is revealed. Georgy, the worker, has not only his name, but also a number to characterize his place. This again gives a resemblance to a prison, labeling workers by numbers and names.

When you take a look at the other spectrum, the residents of Metropolis, the color scheme changes. When the viewer is first shown the citizens of Metropolis they are viewed wearing all white, and with smiles on their faces. The viewer is also shown the people of Metropolis in suits and ties, the women is fancy lace dresses, and everyone is having a great time. As well when the viewer is taken to Feder’s father’s building we are shown the “boss” wearing a classic suit for work and the people working for the boss in work suits as well.

This difference in attire and costume, not only generalizes the characters, but it also creates a class difference that is created throughout the film. The film is simple, about a mediator for the city, a person to be the heart to connect the head, Feder’s father, and the hands, the workers under the ground of Metropolis. Now in the beginning the mediator is seen wearing upper class costume, but throughout the film he is shown in the worker’s costumes. It is not until the end of the film, when both the head and the hands connect, does it show Feder in a costume that represents both classes. He has been in a fight and his “proper” clothes are now torn and look to be dirty like the workers. This costume choice surprising brings together the film and the mise en scenè for the ending. Without the costume approach that is taken in this film, it would be harder for the viewer to recognize not only the story, but over meaning.

Is the film Metropolis a reflection of the German culture during the 1920’s?

The silent film Metropolis directed by Fritz Lang was written in 1924 and started screening in 1927. Metropolis was highly influenced by the culture that was present in the Weimar Republic at that period of time. Not only was the film influenced by government ideologies, such as fascism and communism, but it was also influenced by the views of women of the time. Through the themes of corruption and the characterization of two individuals, the film is able to portray the culture of Germany in the 1920’s.

One of the ideas that had become popular during World War I in Germany was known as volkgemeinschaft which was an expression that aimed to remove class tensions and create a “people’s community.” This reflected one of the ideals for both fascism and communism which were beginning to take shape in Europe at the time of the film’s airing. These ideologies were portrayed through the film’s theme of the struggle between the working class and the rulers. Interestingly, the working men are portrayed as desolate; with heads hung they walked in an almost zombie-like fashion with little to no emotion until they begin to rebel, meanwhile the ruler of the city Metropolis, Joh Fredersen, appears emotionally deficient as well. While the workers are powerless to change their fates on their own, Fredersen should not be so devoid of emotion for he is one of the elite. This characterization portrays the common fascist belief that intelligence cannot be trusted; instead emotions should be the elevated area of human existence. Thus the film portrays Freder and Maria as the two heroes’ because they are ruled by their emotions while Fredersen and Rotwang are considered villainous and their intellect is their downfall. Finally, as a continuation to the theme of eliminating class divides, the character Rotwang is depicted with a metallic prosthetic after losing his right hand in the building of the Machine Man. This is an illusion to Rotwang’s left handed belief that class distinctions need to be eliminated in the Metropolis.

In addition to Fascist beliefs, the Weimar Republic had strict views on women. The view on women is portrayed through the film’s characterization of Maria and the Machine Maria. The audience is first introduced to Maria, just as Freder is, in the Eternal Gardens. Freder is accompanied by scantily clad women, yet when Maria appears in her simple work attire, he is mesmerized. She is plainly attractive without any makeup or elaborate clothing to help her. Lang chooses to utilize a type of camera filter that creates an almost halo like glow around Maria, both when she is first introduced in the Gardens and when she is in the catacombs. By characterizing Maria as plainly attractive and by applying the filtered effect the audience doubtlessly likens Maria to the biblical Mary. Meanwhile, the Machine Maria is characterized as a much more suggestive woman. She adorns dark makeup and performs gestures meant to appear erotic. She is also openly compared to the Whore of Babylon while dancing in front of the elite and brings to life the seven deadly sins. Also, to further these illusions Lang creates two scenes in which each woman is at a higher altitude with a group of people reaching for her. Machine Maria has men grasping at her in lust after she dances for them, while the real Maria has children grasping at her when they are in peril. These two vastly different characters portray how women were viewed in the Weimar Republic; either as very virtuous or promiscuous with little in between.

Between the film’s main theme and the depiction of the two characters, Maria and Machine Maria, the audience can clearly see the influence that the German culture of the 1920’s had on the film Metropolis.

Biblical Allusions In Metropolis

Using special effects very advanced at the time, Fritz Lang’s 1927 German film Metropolis amazed audiences with its futuristic-styled machines and concepts. Despite these innovative approaches to …. FIX THIS some of the most prevalent themes of the movie could be considered ancient.
Throughout the course of the film, Lang constructs the plot around various Bible passages, filling the movie with religious allusions. Allusions that may not have agreed with Germany’s beliefs at the time.
From the moment the blandly-dressed workers board an elevator that takes them to their subterranean workplace, to the eccentrically-garbed young people found frolicking in the Eternal Gardens, audiences can see distinct class separations. But what audiences don’t realize until later in the film is that these classes are separated by much more than an elevator ride. Compared to the harsh environment of the underground, the upper city of Metropolis is heavenly. The Eternal Gardens allude to the Garden of Eden, where luxury and sin both dwelled under God’s supervision. In charge of this garden and the rest of the ethereal city is Joh Fredersen. Joh displays the worst kind of pride when he plays god, telling his son, that the workers beneath the city are “where they belong.” Joh’s son, Freder, rejects his father’s belief and rushes underground to investigate, and to find the woman that inspired his rebellion. A woman who appeared to him in the garden surrounded by children and a halo of light around her head. This woman, Maria, is made to represent an angelic figure who viewers later learn has been preaching the Gospel to the workers and giving them hope for a brighter future.
Although inferred biblical allusions enrich the film’s story, even more obvious ones assist in propelling the plot. One of these is the New Tower of Babel, the heart of upper Metropolis. This structure alludes to—and even resembles structurally— the Tower of Babel from Genesis chapter 10. Under God’s watch, his people assembled and started building a city, Babel. In this city was a tower that they believed could reach the heavens. God feared that through their unity, the people could accomplish anything they wished and eventually overrule him. In order to prevent this rebellion, God scattered the citizens of Babel, making them all speak different languages so that they could never find their way back to the city. Once Joh learns of Maria’s preaching, he fears the workers plan to rebel against him and he sets out to squelch their spirits, acting as God did towards the people of Babel. He uses an evil robot doppelganger for Maria who leads the workers to the destruction of their own city. Lang incorporates a passage from Revelation 17:3-6 which introduces the Whore of Babylon. The robot Maria becomes an obvious symbol for this Biblical femme fatale when her seductions entrance the workers into rebellion.
Caught in the midst of the action, Freder has been proclaimed the “Mediator.” Maria tells Freder his destiny of creating peace between the heavenly paradise of the city and the earthly underground. In this new role, Freder represents a Christ figure. Son of a godly figure and disguised as a worker, Freder becomes the common ground that unites the two very different worlds.
In addition to the many other religious symbols in the film, these allusions played a large role in the story. At the time, though, Christianity was not the dominate religion of the film’s country, Germany. Around the time Metropolis was released, various Nazi religions were established and Christianity was often rejected. According to anthropology Professor Karla Poewe, “the rejection of Christianity was due to the fact that it is universal, and they wanted something local… They wanted something with a historical-genetic-racial link to them.” The fact that the movie was still able to thrive outside of Germany speaks highly of its artistic quality and the impact it still has on films in the years since.